Thursday, 2 June 2011

National Policy on Education, 1986

National Policy on Education, 1986
Statement by Shri Arjun Singh, Minister of Human Resource Development Regarding Modifications to the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986
The National Policy on Education (NPE) was adopted by Parliament in May 1986. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharya Ramamurti in May 1990 to review NPE and to make recommendations for its modifications. That Committee submitted its report in December 1990. At the request of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) a committee was set up in July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N. Janardhana Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, to consider modifications in NPE taking into consideration the report of the Ramamurti Committee and other relevant developments having a bearing on the Policy, and to make recommendations regarding modifications to be made in the NPE. This Committee submitted its report in January 1992. The report of the Committee was considered by the CABE in its meeting held on 5-6 May, 1992. While broadly endorsing the NPE, CABE has recommended a few changes in the Policy.

The NPE has stood the test of time. Based on an in-depth review of the whole gamut of educational situation and formulated on the basis of a national consensus, it enunciated a comprehensive framework to guide the development of education in its entirety. That framework continues to be of relevance. However, the developments during the last few years and experience in the implementation of the Policy have necessitated certain modifications. The modifications required have been specified in the paper "National Policy on Education, 1986 -Revised Policy Formulations" laid on the Table of the House. I also lay on the Table of the House the report of the CABE Committee on Policy.

1.13        The growth of our population needs to be brought down significantly over the coming decades. The largest single factor that could help achieve this is the spread of literacy and education among women.
1.14        Life in the coming decades is likely to bring new tensions together with unprecedented opportunities. To enable the people to benefit in the new environment will require new designs of human resource development. The coming generations should have the ability to internalise new ideas constantly and creatively. They have to be imbued with a strong commitment to humane values and to social justice. All this implies better education.
1.15        Besides, a variety of new challenges and social needs make it imperative for the Government to formulate and implement a new Education Policy for the country. Nothing short of this will meet the situation.

The Essence and Role of Education
2.1          In our national perception, education is essentially for all. This is fundamental to our all- round development, material and spiritual.
2.2          Education has an acculturating role. It refines sensitivities and perceptions that contribute to national cohesion, a scientific temper and independence of mind and spirit - thus furthering the goals of socialism, secularism and democracy enshrined in our Constitution.
2.3          Education develops manpower for different levels of the economy. It is also the substrate on which research and development flourish, being the ultimate guarantee of national self-reliance.

3.5          India has always worked for peace and understanding between nations, treating the whole world as one family. True to this hoary tradition, Education has to strengthen this world view and motivate the younger generations for international co-operation and peaceful co-existence. This aspect cannot be neglected.

3.7          Minimum levels of learning will be laid down for each stage of education. Steps will also be taken to foster among students an understanding of the diverse cultural and social systems of the people living in different parts of the country. Besides the promotion of the link language, programmes will also be launched to increase substantially the translation of books from one language to another and to publish multi-lingual dictionaries and glossaries. The young will be encouraged to undertake the rediscovery of India, each in his own image and perception.

Reorganisation of Education at Different Stages
Early Childhood Care & Education
5.1          The National Policy on Children specially emphasises investment in the development of young child, particularly children from sections of the population in which first generation learners predominate.
5.2          Recognising the holistic nature of child development, viz., nutrition, health and social, mental, physical, moral and emotional development, Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) will receive high priority and be suitably integrated with the Integrated Child Development Services programme, wherever possible. Day-care centres will be provided as a support service for universalisation of primary education, to enable girls engaged in taking care of siblings to attend school and as a support service for working women belonging to poorer sections.

5.7          [Provision will be made of essential facilities in primary schools. The scope of Operation Blackboard will be enlarged to provide three reasonably large rooms that are usable in all weather, and black boards, maps, charts, toys, other necessary learning aids and school library. At least three teachers should work in every school, the number increasing, as early as possible, to one teacher per class. At least 50 per cent of teachers recruited in/future should be women. The Operation Blackboard will be extended to upper primary stage also. Construction of school buildings will be a priority charge on JRY funds]*.

5.10        Effective steps will be taken to provide a framework for the curriculum on the lines of the national core curriculum, but based on the needs of the learners and related to the local environment. Learning material of high quality will be developed and provided free of charge to all pupils. NFE programmes will provide participatory learning environment, and activities such as games and sports, cultural programmes, excursions, etc.
5.11        [The Government will take over-all responsibility for this vital sector. Voluntary agencies and Panchayati Raj institutions will take much of the responsibility of running NFE programmes. Theprovision of funds to these agencies will be adequate and timely]. *

                A Resolve
5.12        [The New Education Policy will give the highest priority to solving the problem of children dropping out of school and will adopt an array of meticulously formulated strategies based on micro-planning, and applied at the grass roots level all over the country, to ensure children's retention at school. This effort will be fully co-ordinated with the network of non-formal education. It shall be ensured that free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality is provided to all children upto 14 years of age before we enter the twenty-first century. A national mission will be launched for the achievement of this goal]. *

5.13        [Secondary education begins to expose students to the differentiated roles of science, the humanities and social sciences. This is also an appropriate stage to provide children with a sense of history and national perspective and give them opportunities to understand their constitutional duties and rights as citizens. Access to secondary education will be widened with emphasis on enrolment of girls, SCs and STs, particularly In science, commerce and vocational streams. Boards of Secondary Education will be reorganised and vested with autonomy so that their ability to improve the quality of secondary education is enhanced. Effort will be made to provide computer literacy in as many secondary level institutions as possible so that the children are equipped with necessary computer skills to be effective In the emerging technological world. A proper understanding of the work ethos and of the values of a humane and composite culturewill be brought about through appropriately formulated curricula. Vocationalisation through specialised institutions or through the refashioning of secondary education will, at this stage, provide valuable manpower for economic growth]. *

Higher Education
Higher education provides people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues facing humanity. It contributes to national development through dissemination of specialised knowledge and skills. It is therefore a crucial factor for survival. Being at the apex of the educational pyramid, it has also a key role in producing teachers for the education system.
In the context of the unprecedented explosion of knowledge, higher education has to become dynamic as never before, constantly entering uncharted areas.
There are around 150 universities and about 5,000 colleges in India today. In view of the need to effect an all round improvement in the institutions, it is proposed that, in the near future, the main emphasis will be on the consolidation of, and expansion of facilities in, the existing institutions.
Urgent steps will be taken to protect the system from degradation.
In view of mixed experiences with the system of affiliation, autonomous colleges will be helped to develop in large numbers until the affiliating system is replaced by a freer and more creative association of universities with colleges. Similarly, the creation of autonomous departments within universities on a selective basis will be encouraged. Autonomy and freedom will be accompanied by accountability.
Courses and programmes will be redesigned to meet the demands of specialisation better. Special emphasis will be laid on linguistic competence. There will be increasing flexibility in the combination of courses.
State level planning and .co-ordination of higher education will be done through Councils of Higher Education. The UGC and these Councils will develop coordinative methods to keep a watch on standards.

5.33        [Research in Indology, the humanities and social sciences will receive adequate support. To fulfil the need for the synthesis of knowledge, inter-disciplinary research will be encouraged. Efforts will be made to delve into India's ancient fund of knowledge and to relate it to contemporary reality. This effort will imply the development of facilities for the intensive study of Sanskrit and other classical languages. An autonomous Commission will be established to foster and improve teaching, study and research in Sanskrit and other classical languages.]*

                Rural University
5.42        The new pattern of the Rural University will be consolidated and developed on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi's revolutionary ideas on education so as to take up the challenges of micro- planning at grassroots levels for the transformation of rural areas. Institutions and programmes of Gandhian basic education will be supported.

Technical and Management
6.1          Although the two streams of technical and management education are functioning separately, it is essential to look at them together, in view of their close relationship and complementary concerns. The reorganisation of Technical and Management Education should take into account the anticipated scenario by the turn of the century, with specific reference to the likely changes in the economy, social environment, production and management processes, the rapid expansion of knowledge and the great advances in science and technology.

6.7          In order to increase the relevance of management education, particularly in the non corporate and under-managed sectors, the management education system will study and document the Indian experience and create a body of knowledge and specific educational programmes suited to these sectors.

Management Functions and Change
In view of the likely emergence of changes in management systems and the need to equip students with the ability to cope with them, effective mechanisms will be devised to understand the nature and direction of change per se and to develop the important skill of managing change.
In view of the integrated nature of the task, the Ministry of Human Resource Development will co-ordinate the balanced development of engineering, vocational and management education as well as the education of technicians and craftsmen.
Professional societies will be encouraged and enabled to perform their due role in the advancement of technical and management education.

Making the System Work
7.1          It is obvious that these and many other new tasks of education cannot be performed in a state of disorder. Education needs to be managed in an atmosphere of utmost intellectual rigour, seriousness of purpose and, at the same time, of freedom essential for innovation and creativity. While far-reaching changes will have to be incorporated in the quality and range of education, the process of introducing discipline into the system will have to be started, here and now, in what exists.
7.2          The country has placed boundless trust in the educational system. The people have a right to expect concrete results. The first task is to make it work. All teachers should teach and all students study.
7.3          The strategy in this behalf will consist of -
a.            better deal to teachers with greater accountability;
b.            provision of improved students services and insistence on observance of acceptable norms of behaviour;
c.             provision of better facilities to institutions; and
d.            creation of a system of performance appraisals of institutions according to standards and norms set at the National or State levels.
Reorienting the Content and Process of Education
                The Cultural Perspective
8.1          The existing schism between the formal system of education and the country's rich and varied cultural traditions need to be bridged. The preoccupation with modern technologies cannot be allowed to sever our new generations from the roots in India's history and culture. De-culturisation, de-humanisation and alienation must be avoided at all costs. Education can and must bring about the fine synthesis between change-oriented technologies and the country's continuity of cultural tradition.
8.2          The curricula and processes of education will be enriched by cultural content in as many manifestations as possible. Children will be enabled to develop sensitivity to beauty, harmony and refinement. Resource persons in the community, irrespective of their formal educational qualifications, will be invited to contribute to the cultural enrichment of education, employing both the literate and oral traditions of communication. To sustain and carry forward the cultural tradition, the role of old masters, who train pupils through traditional modes will be supported and recognised.
8.3          Linkages will be established between the university system and institutions of higher learning in art, archaeology, oriental studies, etc. Due attention will also be paid to the specialised disciplines of Fine Arts, Museology, Folklore, etc. Teaching, training and research in these disciplines will be strengthened so as to replenish specialised manpower in them.
                Value Education
8.4          The growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values.
8.5          In our culturally plural society, education should foster universal and eternal values, oriented towards the unity and integration of our people. Such value education should help eliminate obscurantism, religious fanaticism, violence, superstition and fatalism.
8.6          Apart from this combative role, value education has a profound positive content, based on our heritage, national and universal goals and perceptions. It should lay primary emphasis on this aspect.

Education and Environment
There is a paramount need to create a consciousness of the environment. It must permeate all ages and all sections of society, beginning with the child. Environmental consciousness should inform teaching in schools and colleges. This aspect will be integrated in the entire educational process.
Population Education
[Population education must be viewed as an important part of the nation's strategy to contain the growth of population. Starting at the primary and secondary levels with inculcation of consciousness about the looming crisis due to expansion of population, educational programmes should actively motivate and inform youth and adults about family planning and responsible parenthood.}*

Science Education
Science education will be strengthened so as to develop in the child well defined abilities and values such as the spirit of Inquiry, creativity, objectivity, the courage to question, and an aesthetic sensibility.
Science education programmes will be designed to enable the learner to acquire problem solving and decision making skills and to discover the relationship of science with health, agriculture, industry and other aspects of daily life. Every effort will be made to extend science education to the vast numbers who have remained outside the pale of formal education.

[As a system, which promotes an integrated development of body and mind, Yoga will receive special attention. Efforts will be made to introduce Yoga in all schools. To this end, it will be introduced in teacher training courses.]*
The Role of Youth
Opportunities will be provided for the youth to Involve themselves in national and social development through educational institutions and outside them. Students will be required to participate In one or the other of existing schemes, namely, the National Service Scheme, National Cadet Corps, etc. Outside the Institutions, the youth will be encouraged to take up programmes of development, reform and extension. The National Service Volunteer Scheme will be strengthened.

9.1          The status of the teacher reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no people can rise above the level of its teachers. The Government and the community should endeavour to create conditions, which will help motivate and inspire teachers on constructive and creative lines. Teachers should have the freedom to innovate, to devise appropriate methods of communication and activities relevant to the needs and capabilities of and the concerns of the community.

The Management of Education
10.1        An overhaul of the system of planning and the management of education will receive high priority. The guiding considerations will be:
a.            Evolving a long-term planning and management perspective of education and its integration with the country's developmental and manpower needs;
b.            Decentralisation and the creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions;
c.             Giving pre-eminence to people's involvement, including association of non-governmental agencies and voluntary effort;
d.            Inducting more women in the planning and management of education;
e.            Establishing the principle of accountability in relation to given objectives and norms.
                National Level
10.2        The Central Advisory Board of Education will play a pivotal role in reviewing educational development, determining the changes required to improve the system and monitoring implementation. It will function through appropriate Committees and other mechanisms created to ensure contact with, and co-ordination among, the various areas of Human Resource Development. The Departments of Education at the Centre and in the States will be strengthened through the involvement of professionals.
                Indian Education Service
10.3        A proper management structure in education will entail the establishment of the Indian Education Service as an All-India Service. It will bring a national perspective to this vital sector. The basic principles, functions and procedures of recruitment to this service will be decided in consultation with the State Governments.

The Future

12.1        The future shape of education in India is too complex to envision with precision. Yet, given our tradition, which has almost always put high premium on intellectual and spiritual attainment, we are bound to succeed in achieving our objectives.
12.2        The main task is to strengthen the base of the pyramid, which might come close to a billion people at the turn of the century. Equally, it is important to ensure that those at the top of the pyramid are among the best in the world. Our cultural well springs had taken good care of both ends in the past; the skew set in with foreign domination and influence. It should now be possible to further intensify the nation-wide effort in Human Resource Development, with Education playing its multifaceted role.

National Policy on Education, 1968

1.     Education has always been accorded an honoured place in Indian society. The great leaders of the Indian freedom movement realised the fundamental role of education and throughout the nation's struggle for independence, stressed its unique significance for national development. Gandhiji formulated the scheme of basic education, seeking to harmonise intellectual and manual work. This was a great step forward in making education directly relevant to the life of the people. Many other national leaders likewise made important contributions to national education before independence.
2.     In the post-independence period, a major concern of the Government of India and of the States has been to give increasing attention to education as a factor vital to national progress and security. Problems of educational reconstruction were reviewed by several commissions and committees, notably the University Education Commission (1948-49) and the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53). Some steps to implement the recommendations of these Commissions were taken; and with the passing of the Resolution on Scientific Policy under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the development of science, technology and scientific research received special emphasis. Toward the end of the third Five Year Plan, a need was felt to hold a comprehensive review of the educational system with a view to initiating a fresh and more determined effort at educational reconstruction; and the Education Commission (1964-66) was appointed to advise Government on " the national pattern of education and on the genera l principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all aspects." The Report of the Education Commission has since been widely discussed and commented upon. Government is happy to note that a consensus on the national policy on education has emerged in the course of these discussions.
3.     The Government of India is convinced that a radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the education commission is essential for economic and cultural development of the country, for national integration and for realising the ideal of a socialistic pattern of society. This will involve a transformation of the system to relate it more closely to life of the people; a continuous effort to expand educational opportunity; a sustained and intensive effort to raise the quality of education at all stages; an emphasis on the development of science and technology; and the cultivation of moral and social values. The educational system must produce young men and women of character and ability committed to national service and development. Only then will education be able to play its vital role in promoting national progress, creating a sense of common citizenship and culture, and strengthening the national integration. This is necessary if the country is to attain its rig htful place in the comity of nations in conformity with its great cultural heritage and its unique potentialities.
4.     The Government of India accordingly resolves to promote the development of education in the country in accordance with the following principles:
1.     Free and Compulsory Education: Strenuous efforts should be made for the early fulfilment of the Directive principle under Article 45 of the Constitution seeking to provide free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Suitable programmes should be developed to reduce the prevailing wastage and stagnation in schools and to ensure that every child who is enrolled in schools successfully completes the prescribed course.
2.     Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers:
a.     Of all the factors which determine the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the teacher is undoubtedly the most important. It is on his personal qualities and character, his educational qualifications and professional competence that the success of all educational endeavours must ultimately depend. Teachers must, therefore, be accorded an honoured place in society, Their emoluments and other service conditions should be adequate and satisfactory having regard to their qualifications and responsibilities.
b.     The academic freedom pf teachers to, pursue and publish independent studies and researches and to speak and write about significant national and international issues should be protected.
c.     Teacher education, particularly in-service education, should receive due emphasis.
3.     Development of languages:
a.     Regional Languages: The energetic development of Indian Languages and literature is a sine qua non for educational and cultural development. Unless this is done, the creative energies of the people will not be released, standards of education will not improve, knowledge will not spread to the people and the gulf between the intelligentsia and masses will remain if not widen further. The regional languages are already in use as media of education at the primary and secondary stages. Urgent steps should now be taken to adopt them as media of education at the university stage.
b.     Three-Language Formula: At the secondary stage, the State Governments should adopt, and vigorously implement, the three-language formula which includes the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, apart from Hindi and English in the Hindi-speaking States, and of Hindi along with the regional language and English in the Non-Hindi-speaking States. Suitable courses in Hindi and/or English should also be available in universities and colleges with a view to improving the proficiency of students in these languages up to the prescribed university standards.
c.     Hindi: Every effort should be made to promote the development of Hindi. In developing Hindi as the link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351 of the Constitution, as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India. The establishment, in non-Hindi States, of colleges and other institutions of higher education which use Hindi, as the medium of education should be encouraged.
d.     Sanskrit Considering the special importance of Sanskrit to the growth and development of Indian languages and its unique contribution to the cultural unity of the country, facilities for its teaching at the school and university stages should be offered on a more liberal scale. Development of new methods of teaching the language should be encouraged, and the possibility explored of including the study of Sanskrit in those courses (such as modern Indian languages, ancient Indian history, Indology and Indian philosophy) at the first and second degree stages, where such knowledge is useful.
e.     International Languages: Special emphasis needs to be laid on the study of English and other international languages. World knowledge is growing at a tremendous pace, especially in science and technology. India must not only keep up this growth but should also make her own significant contribution to it. For this purpose, study of English deserves to be specially strengthened.
4.     Equalisation of Educational Opportunity:Strenuous efforts should be made to equalise educational opportunity.
a.     Regional imbalances in the provision of educational facilities should be corrected and good educational facilities should be provided in rural and other backward areas.
b.     To promote social cohesion and national integration the Common School System as recommended by the Education Commission should be adopted. Efforts should be made to improve the standard of education in general schools. All special schools like public schools should be required to admit students on the basis of merit and also to provide a prescribed proportion of free-studentships to prevent segregation of social classes. This will not, however, affect the rights of minorities under Article 30 of the Constitution.
c.     The education of girls should receive emphasis, not only on grounds of social justice, but also because it accelerates social transformation.
d.     More intensive efforts are needed to develop education among the backward classes and especially among the tribal people.
e.     Educational facilities for the physically and mentally handicapped children should be expanded and attempts should be made to develop integrated programmes enabling the handicapped children to study in regular schools.
5.     Identification of Talent: For the cultivation of excellence, it is necessary that talent in diverse fields should be identified at as early an age as possible, and every stimulus and opportunity given for its full development.
6.     Work - Experience and National Service: The school and the community should be brought closer through suitable programmes of mutual service and support. Work-experience and national service including participation in meaningful and challenging programmes of community service and national reconstruction should accordingly become an integral part of education. Emphasis in these programmes should be on self-help, character formation and on developing a sense of social commitment.
7.     Science Education and Research: With a view to accelerating the growth of the national economy, science education and research should receive high priority. Science and mathematics should be an integral part of general education till the end of the school stage.
8.     Education for Agriculture and Industry: Special emphasis should be placed on the development of education for agriculture and industry.
a.     There should be at least one agricultural university in every State. These should, as far as possible, be single campus universities; but where necessary, they may have constituent colleges on different campuses. Other universities may also be assisted, where the necessary potential exists, to develop strong departments for the study of one ore more aspects of agriculture.
b.     In technical education, practical training in industry should form an integral part of such education. Technical education and research should be related closely to industry, encouraging the flow of personnel both ways and providing for continuous co- operation in the provision, design and periodical review of training programmes and facilities.
c.     There should be a continuous review of the agricultural, industrial and other technical manpower needs of the country and efforts should be made continuously to maintain a proper balance between the output of the educational institutions and employment opportunities.
9.     Production of Books: The quality of books should be improved by attracting the best writing talent through a liberal policy of incentives and remuneration. Immediate steps should be taken for the production of high quality textbooks for schools and universities. Frequent changes of textbooks should be avoided and their prices should be low enough for students of ordinary means to buy them.

The possibility of establishing autonomous book corporations on commercial lines should be examined and efforts should be made to have a few basic textbooks common throughout the country. Special attention should be given to books for children and to university level books in regional languages.
10.  Examinations: A major goal of examination reforms should be to improve the reliability and validity of examinations and to make evaluation a continuous process aimed at helping the student to improve his level of achievement rather than at 'certifying' the quality of his performance at a given moment of time.
11.  Secondary Education:
a.     Education opportunity at the secondary (and higher) level is a major instrument of social change and transformation. Facilities for Secondary education should accordingly be extended expeditiously to areas and classes, which have been denied these in the past.
b.     There is need to increase facilities for technical and vocational education at this stage. Provision of facilities for secondary and vocational education should conform broadly to requirements of the developing economy and real employment opportunities. Such linkage is necessary to make technical and vocational education at the secondary stage effectively terminal. Facilities for technical and vocational education should be suitably diversified to cover a large number of fields such as agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, medicine and public health, home management, arts and crafts, secretarial training, etc.
12.  University Education:
a.     the number of whole-time students to be admitted to a college or university department should be determined with reference to the laboratory, library and other facilities and to the strength of the staff.
b.     Considerable care is needed in establishing new universities. These should be started only after an adequate provision of funds has been made for the purpose and due care has been taken to ensure proper standards.
c.     Special attention should be given to the organisation of postgraduate courses and to the improvement of standards of training and research at this level.
d.     Centres of advanced study should be strengthened and a small number of 'cluster of centres' aiming at the highest possible standards in research and training should be established.
e.     There is need to give increased support to research in universities generally. The institutions for research should, as far as possible, function within the fold of universities or in intimate association with them.
13.  Part-time Education and Correspondence Courses: Part time education and correspondence courses should be developed on a large scale at the university stage. Such facilities should also be developed for secondary school students, for teachers and for agricultural, industrial and other workers. Education through part-time and correspondence courses should be given the same status as full-time education. Such facilities will smoothen transition from school to work, promote the cause of education and provide opportunities to the large number of people who have the desire to educate themselves further but cannot do so on a full-time basis.
14.  Spread of Literacy and Adult Education:
a.     The liquidation of mass illiteracy is necessary not only for promoting participation in the working of democratic institutions and for accelerating programmes of production, especially in agriculture, but for quickening the tempo of national development in general. Employees in large commercial, industrial and other concerns should be made functionally literate as early as possible. A lead in this direction should come from the industrial undertakings in the public sector. Teachers and students should be actively involved in organising literacy campaigns, especially as part of the Social and National Service Programme.
b.     Special emphasis should be given to the education of young practising farmers and to the training of youth for self-employment.
15.  Games and Sports: Games and sports should be developed on a large scale with the object of improving the physical fitness and sportsmanship of the average student as well as of those who excel in this department. Where playing field and other facilities for developing a nation-wide programme of physical education do not exist, these should be provided on a priority basis.
16.  Education of Minorities: Every effort should be made not only to protect the rights of minorities but to promote their educational interests as suggested in the statement issued by the Conference of the Chief Ministers of States and Central Ministers held in August, 1961.
17.  The Educational Structure: It will be advantageous to have a broadly uniform educational structure in all parts of the country. The ultimate objective should be to adopt the 10+2+3 pattern, the higher secondary stage of two years being located in schools, colleges or both according to local conditions.
5.     The reconstruction of education on the lines indicated above will need additional outlay. The aim should be gradually to increase the investment in education so as to reach a level of expenditure of 6 per cent of the national income as early as possible.
6.     The Government of India recognises that reconstruction of education is no easy task. Not only are the resources scarce but the problems are exceedingly complex. Considering the key role which education, science and research play in developing the material and human resources of the country, the Government of India will, in addition to undertaking programmes in the Central sector, assist the State Governments for the development of programmes of national importance where co-ordinated action on the part of the States and the Centre is called for.
7.     The Government of India will also review, every five years; the progress made and recommend guidelines for future development.

Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)

Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) was established in 1977 by the Ministry of Education, Government of India as an autonomous organization designed to bring back the entire tradition of Indian philosophy to its pristine and original form and provide required impetus to nurture and promote new thinking through its intensive programs of research. This was the result of the decision of a Committee which had been formed to look into the possibility of raising a body like ICSSR and ICHR exclusively for the discipline of philosophy, for the preservation of Indiaís profound, long and living philosophical tradition. Considering the uniqueness and importance of the subject which was all comprehensive and holistic, the Committee felt the need to strongly recommend that in order to protect the greatest achievements which are recorded in the field of philosophy in India and also preserve deep profundities of its culture, there was a need to evolve a Governmental Institution as ICPR. An argument crucially advanced was that if there is one single factor which would command respect and attention from the contemporary world, it would be none other than the profound wisdom contained in Indian philosophy.
The authorities of the Government of India were convinced that more than any other discipline of knowledge, philosophy in India deserved to have an exclusive and special agency in the country, so conceived and designed that the entire tradition of Indian philosophy is brought back to its original vigor and further developed through various research programs. The chief objective was to portray the lofty philosophical ideals of the country and utilize their tenets for reawakening of India and empower the entire humanity by extending to it the benefits of the accumulated wisdom of India by which human bondage could be meaningfully addressed and humanity could be helped to arrive at progressive perfection at an accelerated pace.
It was felt that this important work could be carried out, not merely through universities alone or through any other existing learned body designed to promote Natural and Human Sciences, but through an independent body that could function as an autonomous organization fully funded by the Government and freely developed by eminent philosophers of the country. It was further envisaged that since philosophy is, by its very nature, comprehensive in its approach and since it is a study of the world as a whole and of all domains of existence in their intricate interrelationships, it must be inter-disciplinary in character.
As a result of mature deliberations, the then Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi appreciated and approved the formation of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR). In 1977, therefore, the Ministry of Education formulated the Memorandum of Association (MOA) of the ICPR and the organization was formed as a Society registered under the Registration of Societies Act.
The initial years from 1977 to 1981 were marked by very slow activity on the part of the Government and it was only in 1981 that the ICPR started functioning when Professor D.P. Chattopadhyaya was appointed the founder Chairman of the Council. The Council began to function from his residence in the initial days till the office was shifted to an independent accommodation in Vasant Vihar. Later, the office was shifted to Guru Nanak Foundation and subsequently to USO House. In 1987, the office was again shifted to Rajendra Bhavan, where ICPR could be stabilized insofar as basic, physical accommodation was concerned. It was during this initial period that the Council made great efforts to get the authorities allot a piece of land for ICPR by the Delhi Development Authority to construct a permanent office for the ICPR. Ultimately, DDA allotted the required land at 36 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, where the present building of the ICPR was built during the years 1990-1996. The building of the ICPR was inaugurated in 1999 by the then Minister of HRD, Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi and the office has been functioning here since then.
Along side the head-quarters of Delhi, there were wide consultations to build an Academic Centre with a world class library in philosophy to cater to the needs of those who are interested in Philosophy. Shri C.P.N. Singh, the then Governor of Uttar Pradesh took the initiative and came up with a gracious offer to house the Academic Centre at the Butler Palace in Lucknow. It may be mentioned here that the palace was built in 1922 by the Rajah of Mehmoodabad as the residence of Sir Harcourt Butler, the then Governor. After independence, it remained vacant for a while and was declared as ìenemy propertyî in 1965 and was brought under the control of Ministry of Commerce. The UP Government used it as the Sales tax office till it was given to ICPR in 1981. The Academic Centre started functioning with Professor T.K. Sarkar as the Director from 1983. With the efforts of the Council, and especially with the hard work put in by Professor R.R. Verma, formerly Director at the Academic centre, Butler Palace became a hub of philosophical activities with an up-to-date specialized library containing 32,000 volumes and yearly subscription to 110 journals, a guest house, well equipped seminar room, exhibition hall and an office. The Centre was brimming with activities with large number of students and researchers visiting Academic Centre library apart from regular seminars being organized there. In 2006, because of Supreme Court judgment against the UP government, the ICPR was asked to vacate the Butler Palace and was forced to locate it in PCF Building, Lucknow which unfortunatly inadequate in every respect for the academic requirement of the ICPR. The present administration is making all efforts to find a suitable place to house the library and restart the academic activities at the Centre.
In all these years, ICPR devoted itself to the task of furthering the activities for the development of philosophy in India and laid out its plans for its progressive activities. They are as follows:
1. Setting up a Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research; (JICPR)
2. Developing programs to assimilate in condensed form some of the important achievements of Indian philosophers, and publishing a series of books focused on important problems of ontology, epistemology, ethics, social and political philosophy and Indian spirituality, works related to living philosophers of India. Also books that bring out Indian expertise in regard to Western philosophy.
3. Developing schemes for seminars, workshops and refresher courses that aim at promoting very high level research in philosophy by the philosophical community of India on themes relevant to the recovery of ancient classical systems of Indian philosophy and relevant also to the progress of contemporary Indian philosophy that would find for itself a high place in the contemporary scene of philosophy in the world at large. This program also envisaged empowerment of young and budding scholars and providing training to philosophers, old and new, so that they could think on new lines on philosophical topics and issues which would be analytic as well as synthetic in character.
4. Initiating special programs through which teaching- learning material could be produced that would facilitate study of philosophy in the country in a manner that would be pedagogically sound and academically refreshing.
5. Initiating special programs for young scholars in the country to meet together over an annual essay competition followed by a high level seminar. 6. Establishing fellowship schemes of different kinds.
7. Establishment of relationships with various organizations of philosophy in India, in the universities and in the colleges.
8. Establishment of relationships with eminent philosophers in different parts of the world and famous institutions of philosophy in the world.
9. Preparing exhibitions on philosophical themes, whereby subtle concepts of philosophy could be transmitted to students, teachers and the general public through artistic forms that would be at once instructive and aesthetically enjoyable.
10. Organization of international conferences on philosophy, including the one inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Mrs Indira Gandhi, (October 10, 1984) which brought together the philosophers of East and West for a fruitful exchange of ideas and experiences.
11. Selection of philosophers of India for participation in international conferences held abroad, resulting in the promotion and propagation of Indian philosophy in the contemporary philosophical community.
12. Development of a world class library of philosophy, which is located now in Lucknow which is perhaps the best in Asia today.
13. Establishment of close relationship with the Government of India for collaborative projects as also for promoting interdisciplinary research in the country.
The main aims and objectives of the Council are as follows:
  • Striving for excellence, creativity and originality in philosophical research within the country.
  • Promoting and encouraging indigenous interdisciplinary research and cross-cultural studies.
  • Strengthening the teaching of philosophy so as to encourage brilliant students to take up the study of philosophy.
  • Dovetailing teaching and research by providing impetus and additional training to philosophy teachers.
  • To identify and encourage inter-disciplinary research especially on topics that are intellectually challenging, especially those that are concerned with national planning and development.
  • To review the progress of research in philosophy from time to time.
  • To sponsor or assist projects or programs of research in philosophy.
  • To give financial support to institutions and organizations engaged in research activities in philosophy.
  • To provide technical assistance or guidance for the formulation of research projects and programs in philosophy, by individuals or institutions, and/or organizing and supporting institutional or other arrangements for training in research methodology.
  • To indicate periodically areas in and topics on which research in philosophy should be promoted and to adopt special measures for the development of research in neglected or developing areas in philosophy.
  • To co-ordinate research activities in philosophy and to encourage programs of inter-disciplinary research.
  • To organize, sponsor and assist seminars, special courses, study circles, working groups/units and conferences for promoting research in philosophy, and to establish institutes for the same purpose.
  • To give grants for publication of digests, journals, periodicals and scholarly works devoted to research in philosophy and also to undertake their publication in select cases.
  • To institute and administer fellowships, scholarships and awards for research in philosophy by students, teachers and others.
  • To develop and support documentation services, including maintenance and supply of data, preparation of inventories of current research in philosophy and compilation of a national register of philosophers.
  • To promote collaboration in research between Indian philosophers and philosophical institutions and those from other countries.
  • To take special steps to develop a group of talented young philosophers and to encourage research by young philosophers working in universities and other institutions.
  • To organize academic exchange program with other countries and help scholars with travel grants to participate in international events in philosophy organized abroad.
  • To advise the Government of India on all such matters pertaining to teaching and research in philosophy as may be referred to it by the Government from time to time.
  • To enter into collaborations with other institutions, organizations and agencies, on mutually agreed terms, for the promotion of research in philosophy.