OBJECTIVES AND GOALS OF EDUCATION
Goals identified cover a wide spectrum of social national and individual's total development. What is stressed more, is the general need for gearing education for national unity, national integration, character building, imbibing Democratic values, dignity of labour, scientific temper and all round advancement.
A leading religious forum suggests : "The education should foster harmony between science and religion so that one can be scientific without being materialistic and be religious without being superstitious. It should eradicate prejudice, be they intellectual, social or religious". It goes on to add the education while drawing out the best in human beings, should address to the fuller development of their spiritual, mental and physical faculties in a holistic manner.
Some voluntary associations have viewed promotion of Indian culture, ideals and spiritual values as the prime concern of education.
New Education Policy should actively assist in building up of a vibrant India Where the citizens will have a National character, social responsibility and spiritual sublimity, with a deep sense of commitment to the country's aims and aspirations and to ensure World Peace and International Understanding.
Values, morals and character building which should be grounded in the study of Indian history, cultural heritage, that promotes unity and integrity of the nation, are seen to be the most important things to be inculcated. The relative order to importance could vary but the estentials do not `brook any compromise. Some would prefer that "moral education should be compulsory in all schools and colleges in the country .... ". Others would feel that from elementary to University levels sound knowledge about Indian history of last 5000 years should be taught .... in a manner which would arouse patriotism, pride in our ancient culture and sense of unity. Most of them come round to the view that "compulsory subjects an history, culture, Indian freedom movement and nationalism should be introduced in the curriculum at all levels". In the some breath they also emphaise that "moral and value based education with proper curriculum should be imparted from elementary to higher levels".
General secretary, divya path sansthan, amar kantak distt. Shahdol (madhya pradesh)
- the basic, aim of education should be the development of self and vocational education should be utilised for achieving that aim.
Shri. Gandrao harwani aldak, headmaster, hindi main board primary school, chhindwara (26th september, 1990)
- primary and secondary education should be value based. Gandhian philosophy should be included in the curricula at all stages.
Shri mukesh kumar sahdev, h.no. 686, Sahdev bhawan, urban estate 11, hisar-125 005 (haryana) (25th october 1990)
- schools at primary and middle level should impart more character building values, sense of obedience, devotion to work and need for discipline.
Shri d.v. Subba rao, retd. Principal, razole, e.g. Dt. Nc-2, I.d.p.l. Colony, hyderabad-500037 (19 october, 1990).
- The physical, mental and spiritual. Development of an individual. Should be the aim of education and this should be achieved through the amalgamation of the eastern spiritualism and western humanism.
The chairman, akhil bharatiya vidyarthi parishad, asara branch, rajasthan.
- Value should be inculcated through education. Students should be apprised of indian heritage and culture.
Bangalore city south district secondary schools head master's and pre- university college principal's association, kalasipalayam, bangalore- 560002 (recommendations made in a special committee meeting held on 11.10.90)
- the holistic view of education is an ideal we may aspire for. But in practice, this may not be possible in the existing setup. It requires more resources, better planning, professionalism and commitment on the part of all those who are engaged in this colossal task of nation building.
Rajya vidwat parishad, rajasthan, adarsh vidya mandir, shiksha mahavidyalaya, raja park, jaipur-302004 (recommendation made in seminar held at jaipur on 13-14th october, 1990
- the stress on value education needs certain clear definition of the values. Secularism may be expressed in terms of 'serva dharma sadbhav' implying the underlying unity of all religions. Respect and regard for other cultures may be replaced by 'regard and respect for indian culture'. Values like dignity of work, love for motherland and indian nationalism may be included.
Department of foundation of education, jamia millia islamia, new delhi (panel- discussion held in new delhi. On 26th september, 1990)
- an integrated view of education would be linear. Education should aim at an integrated development of the physical, social, affective and cognitive aspects of an individual.
Workshop organised at the university of bombay at bombay on 26th september; 1990
- a course on basic human values should be devised for all professional. Courses. This foundation course should be given proper status. Process of inculcating values should start right from the primary stage by involving the students in some concrete programmes preferably by community camps. Cultural and spiritual values are not to be taught but to be caught through scientific and rational ways. Emphasis should be upon duty to work rather than upon right to work. Integral development of head, heart and hand should be the goal of the course.
Dr. S. Muthukumaran, vice-chancellor, bharathidasan, university, tiruchirapalli, tamil nadu.
- The need of the hour is value orientation to the educational system. The perspective paper does not spell out a specific action programme for this.
- A course on social history/social. Structure needs to be included in the curricula at all stages of education to cultivate social consciousness among the students.
- Religious education should be a part of the curriculum.
- Though in principle an integrated view on education is desirable, in practice some sort of specialisation cannot be completely avoided.
- Education should promote the values of democracy, egalitarianism and social justice, good personal., social, moral and spiritual. Values and sense of tolerance for other's views, languages and religions. It should prepare the younger generation to achieve a quality of life that is desirable, feasible and sustainable and to lead a useful. And purposeful life.
Seminar organised by institute of education and culture, hyderabad, the university of hyderabad and the osmania university, hyderabad at the central institute of english and foreign languages, hyderabad on 20th21st october, 1990
- values such as democracy, secularism, socialism, scientific temper, equality of sexes, honesty, integrity, courage, justice, respect for all life forms, different cultures and language etc.,
- constitute the basic mosaic of values which is vital to the unity and integrity of the country. All curricular and extra-curricular activities in schools and colleges should convey this message.
Indore discussion group, indore.
- The ideal of integrated and holistic view of education is a departure having serious structural and functional implications. It envisaged retracting of some of the earlier recommendations of the education commission (1964-66) and npe 1986. It will help in giving new directions and avoiding dichotomies in education.
- The entire system needs an overhauling to make value an integral part of educational process and school climate. Selection of teachers should be the point to begin with. Integrity of the character and dedication towards the profession should be considered alongwith subject competency for recruitment of teachers.
Shri S.P. Patil, Headmaster, Z.P. Primary School, Pune (30.9.90)
- Human, social, cultural and spiritual values should be incorporated in the curriculum.
- Basic values should be imparted through education.
Swami Sanatan Shri, Shri Sanatan Ashram, Kursi Road, Lucknow.
- Education should be more humane and nationalist. Materialistic achievement should not be the main objective of education. Courses should include responsibility towards family, society, natural environment and nation. Younger generation should be taught about morality, justice, love for humanity and nature. For balanced physical and mental growth a child should not be over burdened with books upto the age of 12 years.
Shri Ram Krishan Shastri, Lecturer, Shri Hari Ramram Gopal Sanatan Dharam Sanskrit College, 216 Uncha Mandi, Illahabad.
- Corruption is prevalent in every sphere of life including the education system. Only spiritual, moral and artistic education can eliminate these evils.
Mrs. Shanti Bhatnagar, Principal, R.M.M. Inter College, Railway Road, Modinagar (24th September, 1990)
- The aim of education should be the harmonious development of human personality. It should develop the qualities of 'head', 'heart' and 'hand'. The practical aim of education should never be neglected in any section of- society, and society as a whole should be given equal chances of progress and development. Education must provide full knowledge of human rights and their protection. It should also enhance the sense of duty and responsibility as well as a high moral sense among individuals.
Dr. S.N. Saraf, Vice-Chancellor, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Presanthinilayam-515134 Anantapur Dt (A.P.) (29th October, 1990)
- Specific steps should be suggested for value orientation of higher education.
Dr. Aster Patel, C/o Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research, Auroville (9th October, 1990)
- Reality is of the nature of an organic whole, a whole of consciousness and energy; man himself is an integral part of this total reality. A consciously pursued process of the integration of personality is the avowed and only aim of education. Life and education are necessarily co-terminous in the organic `whole' of reality.
Justice C.S. Dharmadhikari (Retd.), 343 `Gharkul' West Park Road., Dhantoli, Nagpur-12 (6th October, 1990)
- The education should be such that it will enable the student to seek the meaning and purpose of life and not merely, the means of livelihood.
- The whole pattern of education should be Swadeshi oriented. It should be national in the true sense of the term.
Shri Ashok K. Angurana, Director School Education, J&K State, Jammu (25th October, 1990)
- The basic moral values should be integrated into the entire educational process and more stress should be laid on the inculcation of these high values. But it should not be forgotten that our institutions operate in a large social milieu. The influence of family and society at large on the impressionable young minds in equally great. What is required is the creation of a moral climate and moral regeneration not only in our educational institutions but also in the family and society at large. For this, our opinion makers must take the lead.
Prof. Hira Adyanthaya, Dean, Tilak Maharashtra Vidya-peeth, Vidyapeeth Bhavan, Gultekadi, Pune 411037 (16.10.90)
- Education is an individual and social undertaking in which conditions of a particular 'time and 'place' are very important. There had to be a constant responsiveness to actual developing requirements of people. Education should be related to life. It should equip people for performing their roles as good citizens.
- Student must learn the best and the noblest of the Indian heritage in terms of the Indian social institutions and organisations and the psychology underlying the same.
- Human education should be so designed as to enable man to utilise his culture and to `culturise' his utility. If education is concerned with 'life in all its manifestations' then we should not draw a sharp line of demarcation between liberal and technological or scientific and humanistic education. One is as useful as the other.
Shri K.S. Acharlu, Gandhi Vigyan, 80, Temple Road, I Main, Malleswaram, Bangalore-560 003 (8.10.90)
- If education is to bring into being a humane and enlighened society, the first and foremost condition is that it should be founded on human values. An educational system which is not based on spiritual values is of no intrinsic worth.
- Education should be conceived as the spearhead of a silent revolution. It should provide a healthy and moral basis of relationship between the classes. It should check the progressive decay of our villages and lay the foundation of a just social order in which there is no unnatural division between the haves and havenots and everybody is assured of a living wage and right to freedom.
- The spiritual values should find expression in the entire education process - not only in the content and curriculum but in every educational activity. Education must be ultimately concerned with values which are independent of time and place or a particular environment.
Shri Rajesh Kumar Jain, 330 Income Tax Colony, Uttari Pitam Pura, Delhi (23rd October, 1990)
- More emphasis must be given on moral education. Religious education should be made an integral part of education.
Prof. Maqbool Ahmad, President, All India Muslim Majlise Musharat, 93 Park Street, Calcutta (21.11.1990)
- The process of education starts from birth and continues till death. In this process the environment of the child's home has a lasting impact on his/her up-bringing. The purpose of education is inculcation of moral values, upliftment of the spirit, service to man kind and the building up of a moral character.
- Education should be linked with some kind of vocation. It should ensure employment but care should be taken that it does not become a means for making money only.
- The course content of school and college syllabus should include Indian heritage and India's composite culture. Through religious instruction we should teach the difference between good and evil.
- Education should create individuals of character who can rise above narrow parochialism in the large interest of the unity of the national.
Prof. B. Ganguly, Head, Department of Education in Science & Mathematics and Dean (Academic), NCERT, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi- 110016 (24th September, 1990)
- The `Asset' or `Resource' are concrete terms and would be possible to attain. If It becomes possible to improve human beings as asset or resource, It would take care of all aspects. Otherwise aim towards abstract attainment will lead us no where.
- What is required today is the value judgement. In order to attain this, only change in the content of the textbook only will not suffice. Education must be free from authoritative teaching. It must encourage them to thinking and questioning, which are the only two tools of learning. Without these tools, learning will never be possible and attainment of values will remain far off.
- Only "Right to Work" is not enough. One should attempt for "Right to Work with dignity". In our country, most of the people do not have any work. Some professions are considered more respectable than others. In a village or a city, a bad lawyer or a poor doctor of a locality will be invited in the school or college functions, but skillful farmers, cobblers and carpenters will never be asked to enter.
Dr.(Mrs.) Sarojoni Varshney, Retired Principal., Mahila Mahavidyalaya Banaras & Prof. of Education, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (26 Oct. 1990)
- Values cannot be taught but they would be caught. Therefore, values should be integrated into the syllabus.
Dr. Ramjee Singh, Professor & Head, Department of Gandhian Thought, Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur - letter dated 29.9.90
- From the point of view of making education rooted in our culture and for the unity and integrity of the nation, the committee must emphasise the need of greater appreciation of the need of synthetic culture of India. Students should know the basic and common elements of all religions. In a multi-religious and multi-racial country, the knowledge of synthesis of different strands of Culture is necessary. Indian culture is a culture of peace. The perspective paper should have thrown light on the role of Education for Peace. There is a great need of directing our efforts to generate and strengthen forces of understanding, harmony and peace.
Shri B.V. Moghe, Adarsh College, Shivajinagar, Hingoli-431513 Letter dated 28th September, 1990
- The suggestions of providing "Hidden Curriculum" and "Value based Education" at various stages of Education require still more emphasis. The fast inflow of western consumerism be checked and Gandhian Philosophy be sprouted through curricula.
Shri N. Satyanarayana, President Constructive Forum, 39, Babar Road, New Delhi-110001, Letter dated 8.10.90.
- Stress should be made in the policy on the human values by effectively incorporating the histories and stories of our great leaders (especially Indian) in the text books of the students so that they can learn and imitate their great leaders.
Professor Dr. Omkar N. Wakhlu, Consulting Engineering, Buchwara, Old Gangribal Road, Srinagar-190001 - Letter dated 30.9.90
- The incorporation of traditional knowledge and wisdom is an excellent suggestion. But before we even talk about it, let steps be taken to prepare and select proper reading material in these areas. This is most important.
Shri Kalayanbhai T. Shah, 18 New Brahma-Kshatriya Society Ellis bridge, Ahmedabad (26th September, 1990)
- In primary education curriculum, insertions about some basic values of life could be included in the form of stories, poems etc. in the text books. This will serve as seeds for the development in total growth. It should also be desirable to include imparting of Indian cultural values by adding lives of saints, seers, great national leaders, poets, musicians, artists etc.
- In view of the change in national, political, economic and social policies, it would be advisable to impart basic knowledge of democracy and decentralisation of power to students and also to make them aware of their role as citizens, their rights, responsibilities and duties in the holistic perspective.
Shri G.M. Verma, C-4/H/164-B, Janak Puri, New Delhi (October 4, 1990)
- Aims of education should be all round development of child, development- of national mind, self-reliance, scientific out-look, social transformation, appreciation and enrichment of Indian culture., and spiritual and moral development.
1) Education is an art
2) Education must sharpen sensitivities and sensibilities
of the individual. It must establish harmony between the
sensory and spirituality.
3) Education must add self-fulfilment.
4) Education must neither be imparted nor acquired but
Name : Shri M S Khera,
Address : College Road,
Date of Communication : 06/06/90
Category : Other Individual letter
Suggestions received on Goals of Education
1) The aims of the education should be acquisition of
knowledge, building of personal and national character
and enrichment of culture.
2) The aims of education in India should be comprehensive &
should include the following objectives: a) All round
dev. of the child. b) Dev. of national character.
c)Self-reliance in the learner. d)Scientific outlook of
the learner. e) Appreciation and enrichment of Indian
culture. f) Spiritual & moral
Name : Vidya Bharati,
Address : Akhil Bharatiya Sanskrit Gyan
Pariksha, S Bhavan, Kurukshetra
Date of Communication : 27/07/90
1) Aims of education should be : a) All round dev. of the
child. b) Development of a national mind. c) Self-
reliance. d) scientific outlook. e) Social
transformation. f) Appreciation and enrichment of Indian
culture. g) Spiritual and moral development
Name : Vidya Bharati Akhil Bharatiya
Address : Shiksha Sansthan, Saraswati
Kunj, Nirala Ngr, Lucknow
Date of Communication : 28/07/90
Category : Organisation
GOALS OF EDUCATION
1) Education should be based on Indian values and morality.
Name : Shri Khajan Singh Dagur
Address : Head Teacher, Yuva Vichar Manch
: Pathroda, Bharatpur
Date of Communication : / /
Category : Other Individual letter
1) Education should develop democratic values in students.
2) Education should inclcate moral values.
3) Education should instil a sense of pride in Indian culture and
Name : Sh. Bhagwant Rao Gajare
Address : C-21, Adarsh Colony, Nimbahera
Date of Communication: 15/05/90
Category : Other Individual letter
1) Mahatama Gandhi felt that the education system
introduced by Lord Macaulay had ignored Indian
culture and traditions.
2) Gandhiji felt that the main objective of education
was to build character.
Name : Sh. Push Raj,
Address : Article in Jansata
Date of Communication : 17/05/90
Category : Newspaper Articles
Dr. H.C. Vissvesvaraiya, Vice-Chancellor, University of Roorkee, Roorkee (26 Oct. 1990)
- Development of modern technology should be interwoven with moral and ethical fabric.
Shri Y. Srinivasa Rao, Head Master, PHR Management High School, Ranganyalaya, Andhra Pradesh (29 Oct. 1990)
- The overall atmosphere in the school should be value based and capable of inculcating values.
Shri Tarseen Lal, General. Secretary, Association of Heads of High Schools, Punjab (29 Oct. 1990)
- The aim of education should be to enable the students to become good citizens.
Dr. (Ms.) Vimla Srivastava, Reader, Baikunthi Devi College, Agra (29 Oct. 1990)
- Education should aim at developing intellectual integrity and national- integration.
Dr. Y. Mohendra Singh, Principal., Moirang College and General. Secretary, Manipur Principals' Council, Imphal. (29 Oct. 1990)
- Values of national integration and national unity should be developed in children.
Shri Jitendra Prasad, Treasurer, M.D. University Teachers Association, Rohtak, Haryana (29 Oct. 1990)
- Education should be free from religious biases and it should provide know1edge about the cultural traditions of the country.
Dr. John Vallamattam, Editor, Indian Currents, New Delhi (30 Oct. 1990)
- Moral education is vital.
Shri J.P.B. Bhatnagar, Editor, Musalman, Madras (30 Oct. 1990)
- The moral and cultural values prevalent in our cultural tradition and practices should be included in education.
Shri S.I. Tripathi, Member, Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial reconstruction, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi (5th November, 1990)
- Special and specific provisions should be made for value education. Values cannot be taught through literature or by teachers. The teachers should be models for the students to inculcate the values.
Shri Harish Tyagi, Convenor, All. India Democratic Youth Organisation, New Delhi (7th November, 1990)
- Integrated development of human being should be the objective and concern of education.
Shri O.P. Kohli, Member, Executive, Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad, New Delhi, (7th November, 1990)
- Education should have a secular character to sensitize people towards character formation and developing secular attitude
This area includes opinions and suggestions made in respect of various roles education has to play. Development of desirable, social, ethical, moral and cultural values, cultivation of love and respect for the Constitution, promotion of national integration, preparation of the educand for Meaningful and effective living are some examples. in other words this theme is concerned with the fundamental aspects of education which should form the basis for policy formulation.
The article and letters published in the newspapers have tried to elaborate and pinpoint certain goals and aims of education. The traditionally accepted goals are emphasised in some of the articles as the examples given below will reveal :
- "Basic objective of education is to bring to the forefront the basic Values that human being would require"
- "Education Policy should primarily aim at development of human potential and providing equal educational opportunities to all"
- "The objective of education should. be fuller development of personalities which should lead to social awareness and bring about mental, physical and emotional development"
- "Education should be related to the realities of life and cater to the needs of the society"
- "The pursuit of truth is one of the most important aims of education"
- "Education should help develop a value system and an intellectual framework which allows the country to help its own mechanism to tackle its problems"
- The New Education Policy should have value orientation to protect the country's cultural values"